Artículo de Stein Kuhnle en  “The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Polirical Science”, by Vernon Bogdanor (ed.).  Blackwell,  1987


 El formateado es mío (L. B.-B.)


The term denotes the full and responsible membership of an individual in a state. In the social sciences it has been used primarily to denote the status of individuals in the development of modern nation-states. Citizenship refers to rights which a state confers upon certain or all individuals in a territory over which it has control. According to Bendix, a core element in nation-building is the codification of the rights and duties of all adults who are classified as citizens. Conditions of citizenship are determined within each state in accordance with its own legal provisions.

Most societies have developed from a condition in which the vast majority of the people were considered objects of rule to a condition in which rights have become as important as duties and in which the rights of citizenship have gradually become universal.

In Citizenship and Social Class, T. H. Marshall offered what has become a classic example of analysis of the concept of citizen­ship within an evolutionary perspective. He created a simple threefold typology of citizen­ship rights and applied it to the historical development of rights and duties in England since the eighteenth century. In Marshall's perspective, the eighteenth century brought civil rights (or civil citizenship): equality before the law, liberty of the person, freedom of speech, thought, and faith, the right to own property and conclude contracts. The nine­teenth century saw the development of political rights (or political citizenship): the right to take part in elections, the right to serve in bodies invested with political authority, whether legis­latures or cabinets. Finally, the exercise of political rights in the twentieth century brought social rights (or social citizenship): the right to a certain standard of economic and social wel­fare, the right to share to the full in the social heritage. Four sets of public institutions corres­pond to these three types of rights: the courts, representative political bodies, the social services and the schools.

Citizenship denotes individual membership in a nation-state. International law does not recognize any distinction between nationality and citizenship: nationality determines citizen­ship. Modern life patterns in the western world, however, have given rise to a develop­ment towards a kind of multiple citizenship. A Turkish guest-worker in Sweden may in a short period of time acquire most of the citizenship rights and duties of Swedish nationals, while simultaneously upholding the citizenship rights (and duties) of a Turkish citizen. This is not merely a question of definition; it is also a practical problem since citizenship denotes a relationship between an individual and the state by which the individual owes allegiance and the state owes protection. The citizen who has a right to be consulted in the conduct of the political system is alsosupposed to be bound by the results of the consultation. A serious difficulty would arise if the two (or more) states in which an individual maintained important citizenship rights were to go to war with one another. The trend towards a greater number of 'multinational individuals' seems to require the development of rules to determine the instances in which one type of citizenship has priority over others. The development of an international citizen­ship for such individuals is one possibility.

See also WELFARE STATE.           SK


Bendix, R: Nation-Building and Citizenship. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. Kuhnle, S. and Rokkan, S.: T.H. Marshall. In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. XVIII. New York: Free Press, 1969.

Marshall, T.H.: Citizenship, Social Class, and other Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950.

Svarlien, 0.: Citizenship. In A Dictionary of the Social Sciences, ed. J. Gould and W. Kolb. London: Tavistock, 1964.